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Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

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1 Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus on Fri Aug 19, 2016 6:07 pm

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Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus: the Management

Chronic bronchitis refers to inflammation and often infection of the bronchia, manifested by persistent, sputum-producing cough. Patients are diagnosed with pediatric bronchitis antibiotics experience sputum expectoration for more than three months of the year over a period of two years in a row, in the absence of other respiratory or cardio-vascular problems that can also generate recidivating cough. Chronic bronchitis usually occurs on the premises of weakened natural defenses of the respiratory tract (cilia barriers), triggered by infection with viral or bacterial organisms, or prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke, chemicals, industrial pollutants and other irritants. Most cases of chronic bronchitis occur as a result of interaction between these factors.

Is important to note that there is no specific cure for chronic bronchitis. The treatment of chronic bronchitis varies from a patient to another, according to the intensity, the duration and the stage of the disease. The recurrent character of chronic bronchitis renders most medical treatments ineffective in completely overcoming the disease. Thus, the treatment of chronic bronchitis is primarily aimed at providing temporary symptomatic relief and preventing the occurrence of further complications.

People with chronic bronchitis are usually prescribed combination treatments that include prophylactic antibiotics, corticosteroids, cough suppressants, expectorants (medications that have the opposite effects of suppressants) and chest physiotherapy. However, doctors don't recommend ongoing treatments with expectorants. Prolonged chest physiotherapy and postural drainage should also be avoided. Instead, cough-suppressing medications such as codeine or dextromethorphan can be prescribed in short courses for relieving persistent cough and obstruction of the airways.

The process of diagnosing chronic bronchitis, doctors usually account for two major aspects: the recurrence of the symptoms generated by the disease and conclusive evidence of patients' exposure to airborne irritants. Patients with chronic bronchitis may experience the following symptoms: sputum-producing cough (yellowish aspect of the phlegm and expectoration of blood are indicators for bacterial infections), chest pain and discomfort that intensify with deep breaths, wheezing, pronounced shortness of breath and accelerated breathing. Along with hypoventilation, cyanosis usually points to spreading of the disease at the level of the lungs. In the absence of an appropriate medical treatment, people with chronic bronchitis are very exposed to the development of serious complications such as emphysema and pneumonia. A rolling stone gathers no moss. So if I just go on writing, and you don't understand, then it is of no use of me writing about Chronic Bronchitis Doctors! Whatever written should be understandable by the reader.



  • The first step in the management of chronic bronchitis is to reduce or completely eliminate patients' exposure to airborne irritants.
  • In order to increase the efficiency of medical treatments, regular smokers are advised to quit smoking for good.
  • Chronic bronchitis sufferers should avoid exposure to passive smoke, chemicals and industrial pollutants as much as possible.
  • For most patients, symptoms such as cough and difficult breathing can be alleviated simply by minimizing the exposure to irritants.
  • It is with much interest that we got about to write on Www Bronchitis.
  • So we do hope that you too read this article with the same, if not more interest!




The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Embarassed

Fluoroquinolones are Approved for Use Only in People Older Than 18

They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible. A rolling stone gathers no moss. So if I just go on writing, and you don't understand, then it is of no use of me writing about Bronchitis! Whatever written should be understandable by the reader.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin. It is with much interest that we got about to write on Bronchitis. So we do hope that you too read this article with the same, if not more interest! Rolling Eyes

First Generation

The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. Ignorance is bliss, is it? Isn't it better to learn more than not to know about something like Chronic Bronchitis. So we have produced this article so that you can learn more about it!

Conditions Treated With Fluoroquinolones: Indications and Uses

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing. We were actually wondering how to get about to writing about Bronchitis. However once we started writing, the words just seemed to flow continuously! Very Happy.

Fourth Generation

The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan). Do not judge a book by its cover; so don't just scan through this matter on Bronchitis. read it thoroughly to judge its value and importance.

Classification of Fluoroquinolones

As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Writing is something that has to be done when one is in the mood to write. So when we got in the mood to write about Chronic Bronchitis, nothing could stop us from writing!

Third Generation

The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species. It is rather interesting to note that people like reading about Bronchitis if they are presented in an easy and clear way. The presentation of an article too is important for one to entice people to read it! Wink


Medi-Cal: DUR: Pharmacotherapy Management of COPD Exacerbation





The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. It is rather inviting to go on writing on Chronic Bronchitis. however as there is a limitation to the number of words to be written, we have confined ourselves to this. However, do enjoy yourself reading it.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

Second Generation

The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections. Wink

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

Gastrointestinal Effects

The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped. It is always better to have compositions with as little corrections in it as possible. This is why we have written this composition on Chronic Bronchitis with no corrections for the reader to be more interested in reading it.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance. Isn't it amazing how much information can be transferred through a single page? So much stands to gain, and to lose about Bronchitis through a single page.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects. The presentation of an article on Bronchitis plays an important role in getting the reader interested in reading it. This is the reason for this presentation, which has gotten you interested in reading it!

Bronchitis can be Referred to as a Very Common Respiratory Condition

It can hit almost anyone. There is no special age at which this disease can show its' symptoms. However, certain people are more vulnerable to this disease. Smokers and people exposed to smoke or environmental pollution, are at the risk of developing this disease.

To start with, causes of bronchitis and ayurvedic home remedies be really intense. However, these symptoms fade away within a few days time. In case, this type of bronchitis is cause by infection with viruses, it will go on itself. You don't require any medical treatment. However, in case bronchitis symptoms tend to persist and get intense, you must seek the advice of your health care practitioner. Remember that it is very important to have a disciplined mode of writing when writing. This is because it is difficult to complete something started if there is no discipline in writing especially when writing on Symptoms Bronchitis.

Step four: The temperature of patient may go up to 102 degrees or even more. e) Step five: You should look for the symptoms of a patient such as swelling in legs, feet or ankles, blue-tinged lips and pus in sputum for advanced stages of bronchitis. It is only through sheer determination that we were able to complete this composition on Acute Bronchitis Symptoms. Determination, and regular time table for writing helps in writing essays, reports and articles.

Some of the most common factors contributing to this disease include smoking, genetic predisposition to developing respiratory diseases, immunologic deficiencies and prolonged exposure to irritants such as pollutants, dust, chemicals and pollen. Any sort of infection with viruses or bacteria can also be a good reason to development of this disease.



  • Bad news: This disease can be a real health problem and pain in the neck making it very difficulty to cope up with daily activities of life.
  • Good news: This respiratory disease can be easily treated when detected on time.
  • Now, the question is how to recognize the potential bronchitis symptoms (acute or chronic) in order to seek immediate medical attention.
  • Here is a detailed guide in this regard to help you: Wink



Step Three:

The lungs would emit out some abnormal sounds. The doctor will be in a position to confirm this once he or she listens to the breathing of the patient carefully with the help of a stethoscope. It is only because that we are rather fluent on the subject of Bronchitis Infection that we have ventured on writing something so influential on Bronchitis Infection like this!

When it comes to chronic bronchitis, the symptoms are of moderate intensity. However, these are persistent and possess what is known as recidivating character. When compared to acute bronchitis, this type is infectious and certainly requires expert and specific medical attention. The treatment should not be interrupted in any way until directed by the doctor.

Is Very Important to Recognize Bronchitis Symptoms

If you recognize bronchitis symptoms on time, it will be easy for you to know that you have developed this disease and finally, you can get timely and expert medical attention. So, let us discuss about how to recognize bronchitis symptoms. Bronchitis can be categorized into two different categories namely; acute and chronic. Writing an article on Chronic Bronchitis Symptoms was our foremost priority while thinking of a topic to write on. This is because Chronic About the bronchitis symptoms and the treatment that can be followed parts of our lives, and are needed by us. Very Happy.

Don't stop the treatment even if you see some relief in the symptoms. Medical experts believe that interrupted the treatment would support reoccurrence of the disease as well as the bronchitis symptoms to become more intense. Rolling Eyes

Step two: You need to look for wheezing of the patient immediately after the coughing stage. You would also observe fatigue and some discomfort in the chest. Although there was a lot of fluctuation in the writing styles of we independent writers, we have come up with an end product on Chronic Bronchitis Symptoms worth reading!

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